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Risk of human papillomavirus-related cancers among kidney transplant recipients and patients receiving chronic dialysis - an observational cohort study

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journal contribution
posted on 24.05.2021, 20:27 by Lars Skov Dalgaard, Ulrik Fassel, Lars Jørgen Østergaard, Bente Jespersen, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard, Søren Jensen-Fangel
Background Individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have excess risk of various cancer types. However, the total burden of human papillomavirus-related cancers remains unknown. Methods We performed a nationwide observational cohort study during 1994–2010. For each person with ESRD, we sampled 19 population controls (without ESRD) matched on age, gender and municipality. Participants were followed until first diagnosis of human papillomavirus-related cancer, death, emigration, or 31 December 2010, whichever came first. Human papillomavirus-related cancers were extracted from Danish medical administrative databases. We considered cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and subsets of head and neck cancers as human papillomavirus-related. We calculated incidence rates of human papillomavirus-related cancer and used Poisson regression to identify risk factors for human papillomavirus-related cancer. Results Among 12,293 persons with ESRD and 229,524 population controls we identified 62 and 798 human papillomavirus-related cancers, respectively. Incidence rates of human papillomavirus-related- cancer were 102 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]; 79.5-131) among persons with ESRD and 40.8 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI; 38.1-43.7) among population controls. ESRD patients had 4.54 (95% CI, 2.48-8.31) fold increased risk of anal cancer and 5.81 fold (95% CI; 3.36-10.1) increased risk of vulvovaginal cancer. Adjusted for age, comorbidity, and sex, ESRD patients had 2.41 (95% CI; 1.83-3.16) fold increased risk of any human papillomavirus-related cancer compared with population controls. Compared with dialysis patients renal transplant recipients had an age-adjusted non-significant 1.53 (95% CI, 0.91-2.58) fold higher risk of human papillomavirus-related cancer. Conclusions Persons with ESRD have excess risk of potentially vaccine-preventable human papillomavirus-related cancers.