An improved precise point positioning model using GPS and Galileo observations
thesisposted on 08.06.2021, 11:57 authored by Akram Afifi
Precise point positioning (PPP) allows for centimeter- to decimeter-level positioning accuracy using a single global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receiver. However, the use of PPP is presently limited due to the time required for the solution to converge or re-converge to the expected accuracy, which typically requires about 30 minutes. This relatively long convergence time is essentially caused by the existing un-modeled GNSS residual errors. Additionally, in urban areas, the number of visible satellites is usually limited when a single satellite constellation is used, which in turn slows down the PPP solution convergence. This, however, can be overcome by combining the observations of two constellations, namely the GPS and Galileo systems. Unfortunately, combining the GPS and Galileo constellations, although enhances the satellite geometry, introduces additional biases that must be considered in the observation mathematical models. These include the GPS-to-Galileo time offset, and Galileo satellite and receiver hardware delays. In addition, the stochastic characteristics of the new Galileo E1 and E5a signals must be determined to a high degree of precision. This can be done by analyzing various sets of GPS and Galileo measurements collected at two stations with short separation. Several PPP models are developed in this dissertation, which combine GPS and Galileo observations in the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) modes. These include the traditional un-differenced model, the decoupled clock model, the semi-decoupled clock model, and the between-satellite single-difference model. It is shown that the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model, the GPS decoupled clock model, and semi-decoupled clock GPS/Galileo PPP model improve the convergence time by about 25% in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only PPP model. In addition, the semi-decoupled GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution precision by about 25% compared to the traditional un-differenced GPS/Galileo PPP model. Moreover, the BSSD GPS/Galileo PPP model improves the solution convergence time by about 50%, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS PPP model, regardless of the type of BSSD combination used. As well, the BSSD model improves the solution precision by about 50% and 25% when the BSSD loose and tight combinations are used, respectively, in comparison with the un-differenced GPS-only model.