Analysis and architecture design of scalable fractional motion estimation for H.264 encoding
thesisposted on 08.06.2021, 11:14 authored by Jasmina Vasiljevic
FractionalMotion Estimation (FME) is an important part of the H.264/AVC video encoding standard. FME can significantly increase the compression ratio achievable by video encoders while improving video quality. However, it is computationally expensive and can consist of over 45% of the total motion estimation runtime. To maximize the performance and hardware utilization of FME implementations on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FGPAs), one needs to effectively exploit the inherent parallelism in an algorithm. In the work we explore two approaches to FME algorithm parallelization in order to effectively increase the processing power of the computing hardware. The first method is referred to as vertical scaling and the second horizontal scaling. In total, we implemented six scaled FME designs on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA. We found that our best scaled FME design exhibited a speedup of 8x over the horizontally scaled designs. Additionally, we conclude that scaling vertically within 4x4 pixel sub-block is more efficient than scaling horizontally across several sub-blocks. As a result we were able to achieve higher video resolutions at lower resource costs. In particular, it is shown that the best vertically scaled design can achieve 30 fps of QSXGA (2560x2048) video using 4 reference frames with only 25.5L LUTS and 28.7K registers.