Durability of blended cement against sodium sulphate attack and alkali-silica reaction
thesisposted on 08.06.2021, 11:59 by Giri Raj Adhikari
Blended cements were studied for their efficacy against sulphate attack and alkali-silica reaction using six different types of fly ashes, a slag, a silica fume and four types of General Use Portland cement of different alkalinity. The study results showed that low calcium fly ash, silica fume and ground granulated blast furnace slag enhanced the sulphate resistance of cement with increased efficacy with the increase in the replacement level. However, slag and silica fume, especially at low replacement levels, exhibited increased rate of expansion beyond the age of 78 weeks. On the contrary, high calcium fly ashes showed reduced resistance to sulphate attack with no clear trend between the replacement level and expansion. Ternary blends consisting of silica fume, particulary in the amount of 5%, high calcium fly ashes and General Use (GU) cement provided high sulphate resistance, which was attributable to reduced permeability. In the same way, some of ternary blends consisting of slag, high calcium fly ash and GU cement improved sulphate resistance. Pre-blending optimum amount of gypsum with high calcium fly ash enhanced the latter's resistance to sulphate attack by producing more ettringite at the early stage of hydration. In the context of alkali-silica reaction permeability was found to be a contributing factor to the results of the accelerated mortar bar test. High-alkali, high-calcium fly ash was found to worsen the alkali silica reaction when used in concrete containing some reactive aggregates. Ternary blend of slag with high calcium fly ash was found to produce promising results in terms of counteracting alkali-silica reaction.