Experimental and Computational Investigation of Spoiler Deployment on Wing Stall
thesisposted on 22.05.2021, 08:58 authored by Scott Lindsay
Upper surface flaps commonly referred to as spoilers or drag brakes can increase maximum lift, and improve aerodynamic efficiency at high, near-stall angles of attack. This phenomenon was studied experimentally and computationally using a 0.307626 m chord length NACA 2412 airfoil in six different configurations, and one baseline clean configuration. A wind tunnel model was placed in the Ryerson Low Speed Wind Tunnel (atmospheric, closed-circuit, 3 ft × 3 ft test section) at a Reynold’s number of approximately 780,000 and a Mach number of 0.136. The wind tunnel study increased the lift coefficient by 0.393%-2.497% depending on the spoiler configuration. A spoiler of 10% chord length increased the maximum lift coefficient by 2.497 % when deflected 8º, by 2.110% when deflected 15º, and reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 2.783% when deflected 25º. A spoiler of 15% chord length produced smaller maximum lift coefficient gains; 0.393% when deflected 8º, by 1.760% when deflected 15º, and reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 4.475% when deflected 25º. Deflecting the spoiler increased the stall angle between 37.658% and 87.544% when compared with the clean configuration. The drag coefficient of spoiler configurations was lower than the clean configuration at angles of attack above 18º. The combination of the increased lift and reduced drag at angles of attack above 18º created by the spoiler configurations resulted in a higher aerodynamic efficiency than the clean configuration case. A 10% chord length spoiler deflected at 8º produced the highest aerodynamic efficiency gains. At low angles of attack, the computational study produced consistently higher lift coefficients compared with the wind tunnel experiment. The lift-slope was consistent with the wind tunnel experiment lift-slope. The spoiler airfoil stall behaviour was inconsistent with the results from the wind tunnel experiment. The drag coefficient results were consistent with the wind tunnel experiment at low angles of attack. However, the spoiler equipped airfoils did not reduce drag at high angles of attack. Therefore, the computational model was not valid for the spoiler configurations at high angles of attack.