Predicting Bone Remodeling in Response to Orthopedic Implantations: Computational Study Using a Mechano-Biochemical Model
thesisposted on 23.05.2021, 12:38 by Pouria Tavakkoli Avval
Periprosthetic bone loss following orthopedic implantations is a serious concern leading to the premature failure of the implants. Therefore, investigating bone remodeling in response to orthopedic implantations is of paramount importance for the purpose of designing long lasting prostheses. In this study, a predictive bone remodeling model (Thermodynamic-based model) was employed to simulate the long-term response of femoral density to total hip arthroplasty (THA), bone fracture plating and intramedullary (IM) nailing. The ability of the model in considering the coupling effect between mechanical loading and bone biochemistry is its unique characteristic. This research provided quantitative data for monitoring bone density changes throughout the femoral bone. The results obtained by the thermodynamic-based model agreed well with the bone morphology and the literature. The study revealed that the most significant periprosthetic bone loss in response to THA occurred in calcar region (Gruen zone 7). Conversely, the region beneath the hip stem (Gruen zone 4) experienced the lowest bone mineral density (BMD) changes. It was found that the composite hip implant and IM nail were more advantageous over the metallic ones as they induced less stress shielding and provided more uniform bone density changes following the surgery. The research study also showed that, due to plating, the areas beneath the bone fracture plate experienced severe bone loss. However, some level of bone formation was observed at the vicinity of the most proximal and distal screw holes in both lateral and anterior plated femurs. Furthermore, in terms of long-term density distributions, the anterior plating was not superior to the lateral plating.