Ratcheting response of biological tissues over asymmetric loading cycles
The purpose of this study is to examine the ratcheting phenomenon in a variety of biological tissues including the trabecular bone, meniscus, articular cartilage and skin, and propose a parametric model to predict the ratcheting strain of these tissues. Furthermore, utilizing experimental data, and the influence of different mechanical and biological parameters on the ratcheting strain are discussed. The dependency of ratcheting on frequency, stress rate, stress variation, physiological environment, and tissue sites is demonstrated. Besides, stiffness of the toe and linear regions in each cycle, and the modulus of the failure region of the stress-strain curve are computed. The energy dissipation in different cycles at two frequencies of 1 Hz and 10 Hz is discussed. A parametric model was employed to predict ratcheting behavior of the said biological tissues. The model predictions of the strain accumulation in tissues are found in agreement with the experimental data.