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Spatial Mismatch in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area : Examining the Commuting Patterns of Immigrants

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posted on 25.05.2021, 07:15 by Liam. Donaldson
The spatial mismatch hypothesis argues that the geographic separation between jobs and housing has an adverse effect on the employment outcomes of ethnic minorities. This research paper tests this assumption for immigrant populations in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area through mapping, cross tabulation and a generalized ordered logit model to determine whether immigrants are at a disadvantage in both the labour market and in terms of commuting distance when compared with Canadian born residents. The results of this study suggest that immigrants are more likely to live over 5 kilometres away from work and that they experience more difficulty in negotiating longer commutes due to higher unemployment rates, lower median household incomes and a greater reliance on transit. In contrast, Canadians are more likely to make daily commutes of over 15 kilometres, however, they are often more capable than immigrants of travelling these increased distances.





Master of Planning


Urban Development

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type