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Towards a equitable approach to tackling the fare evasion problem: a scoping literature review and case study analysis

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posted on 02.02.2022, 17:45 authored by Jessica Cho
The widespread adoption of “proof-of-payment” ticketing systems by public transit corporations (PTCs) has renewed interest in the topic of fare evasion. Although this system has
many benefits, it has also been associated with higher rates of actual or perceived fare evasion. As such, many PTCs including the TTC in Toronto have also simultaneously invested in heightened measures to curb fare evasion. These measures, however, have usually taken the form of increased fines and policing, which have the potential to further disadvantage marginalized populations. A scoping literature review and case study analysis have been
employed to determine whether there is existing evidence that can make a case for the need for a more equitable solution to this problem, and to determine what alternative measures have been effective. Although there is much evidence to support the need for a more equitable approach, research into alternative measures is emerging and therefore somewhat inconclusive.





Master of Planning


Urban Development

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type


Thesis Advisor

Raktim Mitra