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“Tolerated” and non-status persons‟ access to mental health support services: a comparison between Toronto, Canada and Aachen, Germany

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posted on 24.05.2021, 12:31 authored by Avery Toppan
Using the theoretical framework of Identity Formation, this Major Research Paper (MRP) aims to explore the Post-national rights of “tolerated” or undocumented persons in Toronto and Aachen, and their access to necessary mental health services. The assumption is that the experiences of these groups are both traumatic and unique, often creating emotional, mental and physical stress. These forms of stress require various forms of treatment, from formal mental health evaluations, to informal group counselling or bonding with persons of similar experiences. This work takes three service providers in each city, discusses the perspectives and services available, and offers an analysis as to whether they provide the suitable and necessary care for “tolerated” or non-status persons. I will argue that social exclusion in the form of contestant enmity is utilized to deny full access to support services. Recent legal and policy changes in both countries will be accounted for, and recommendations given as to how the service providers and actors at the municipal level can move forward to provide the necessary services.



Master of Arts


Immigration and Settlement Studies

Granting Institution

Ryerson University

LAC Thesis Type